Archive for the ‘Skepticism’ Category
Many people who call themselves agnostics are arguably dogmatists. Why do I say this? Because today atheistic-materialism is a received opinion, a dogma. And the dominant cultural assumption, as expressed in higher education and mass media, is that Christianity is obsolete, disproven, and all but finished as a paradigm. Someone like the comedian, Bill Maher, can get on television and make snide jokes about Christians, and imply by innuendo that all Christians are basically stupid bigots, and everyone accepts these statements as completely ordinary, or even ‘cool’. Nobody expects him to defend his accusations with intelligent arguments.
The problem is that this so-called conclusion is very far from the truth. Christianity has not been refuted or debunked. Rather, the logical fallacy of ‘demolishing a straw man’ has been committed on a massive scale. The poorest examples of Christianity (e.g., fundamentalists) are held up as the examples, and these are ridiculed.
The problem is that Christianity is not defined by it’s poorer examples. In the same way, if we wanted to ridicule democracy as a principle, we could easily find examples where democracy is abused, ridicule those, and thereby conclude that all democracy is bad. The same principle applies to any ideology or institution. The simple truth, evident at least since the time of Socrates, is that *most people* are deeply confused. Christianity is no exception to this rule. In fact, one could argue that confused people *should* join a religion — since the express purpose of religion is to un-confuse people. But no religion claims to do that without a long process. Hence, it is perfectly consistent with the principles of Christianity that, at any given point in time, most Christians are poor Christians!
A true agnosticism would embrace the principle of intellectual humility. An intellectually humble person doesn’t follow the scenario outlined above. Intellectually humble skeptics or agnostics would recognize their ignorance as a liability, and therefore make a determined effort to investigate all plausible possibilities that might lead them to a definitive, or at least probable, opinion.
The first prerequisite of such an orientation, therefore, would be to struggle heroically to divest oneself of prejudice — for all people, being inclined to self-interest, habitually distort and select evidence in self-serving ways. Next, a virtuous skeptic, in the Socratic tradition, would seek out not the worst examples of an opposing viewpoint, but the best.
Here then is my challenge to skeptics or agnostics who want to exert themselves manfully (or womanfully). I propose that the work of the Roman philosopher, Cicero, titled On Moral Duties (De officiis) expresses, even though it is not an explicitly Christian work, essentially the same religious world view on morality as Christianity does. What I’m suggesting is that the work is something extraordinary, sublime, beyond the merely rational, or, if you will, inspired. Cicero’s eclectic synthesis of Platonic, Stoic, and Aristotelian ethics was integrated into Christianity via the later writers such as Ambrose of Milan, St. Augustine, and many others. The spirit of Christian morality is in it. That is, Cicero’s philosophical writings contain much of what is best in the Christian moral tradition. Yes, Christianity assimilated it from a non-Christian writer, but this was done, for the most part, in conscious recognition and admiration of Cicero.
Cicero’s work is also extremely interesting and entertaining to read. It is a literary masterpiece, and ought to be read by everyone. Nor can I imagine anyone reading without their feeling edified.
That is the proposal I would make to the sincere skeptic or agnostic. Read this work, and having your mind placed on a higher plane, as reading the work should do, then in that light you will have a more solid and unprejudiced basis for evaluating the plausibility of the Christian tradition. If the moral principles advocated by Cicero in the work, for example, are laudable and socially constructive, that would be something to factor into an evaluation of the merits and truth of Christianity, which has preserved this moral tradition, and taught it to countless millions of people.
This page has links to several translations of On Moral Duties that can be read online or downloaded. The Peabody translation is excellent.